one were to look at our airway from a bacteria's point of view we would see an
enormous layer of sticky mucus that we would try to avoid as much as possible
because if we got stuck we would be trapped forever.
mucus covers the airway both in the back of the nose and in the lungs.
is swept out by the action of microscopic hairs called cilia that beat 8-12
times every second.
the lungs they sweep it up
the nose they sweep it back.
both cases it winds up in the stomach where the mucus and the bacteria
are respectively broken down for digestion and killed.
you look with a microscope at this process you would see virtually all of
the bacteria trapped in the mucus.
the section on helping
there are some tips on how to help this very effective defense system.
we could get under the mucus we would be able to get closer to the actual cells
that make up the airway. But even here there is a fluid covering these cells
that has some chemicals called "defensins" that also kill bacteria.
Most of the following information is taken from the work of people at the University
of Iowa. Direct references to this work or quotes from it will be in a
are several of these defensins that working both individually and together
provide another line of defense against invading bacteria.
they are salt sensitive.
antibacterial activity of most of these agents is salt sensitive; an
increase in salt concentration inhibits the activity of individual
factors and attenuates synergy between agents.(11614)
contributes to the problem cystic fibrosis children have with so many
also suggests that there may be a problem with our common use of saline
to moisten the nose. [This topic is also discussed further in the
section on helping.]
researchers used a 5% solution of xylitol sprayed into the nose in order to
reduce the saline concentrations and enhance the activity of these defenses.
in a cell model it took 12 hours for 40% of the xylitol to diffuse into the
cell from the airway.
means that in the normal airway, where the mucus is swept out and
replaced every 15 minutes, that the absorption of xylitol of xylitol
into the nasal tissues is negligible. [GOOD SAFETY FACTOR]
it makes a good osmotic agent, able to pull fluid from the cell to
decrease the saline concentration in the airway fluid.
Added to the airway surface decreased Chloride ion concentrations in the
Airway surface fluid in tissue from cystic fibrosis patients.
increase of chloride ions, characteristic of patients with CF, blocks
saline, made up of sodium and chloride ions, may not be too good an idea
for the airway.
does not affect bacterial growth and doesn't interfere with defensin
activity. Major CF pathogens, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, as well as
several others cannot use xylitol for their own growth, nor does it kill
them or interfere with antibiotics that do.
applied to nasal epithelia in live subjects reduces the number of normal
to saline it removes more than 5 times as many bacteria. It does this
without killing them.
WORK WAS DONE WITH A 5% SOLUTION OF XYLITOL, LESS THAN HALF THE CONCENTRATION
HAVE BEEN TALKING ABOUT.
5% SOLUTION IS NOT CONCENTRATED ENOUGH TO STIMULATE OUR OWN NORMAL WASHING
BENEFITS SEEN IN THIS STUDY SHOULD BE ENHANCED BY USING A MORE CONCENTRATED
SOLUTION OF XYLITOL.
The osmolyte xylitol reduces the salt concentration of
airway surface liquid and may enhance bacterial killing.
Zabner J, Seiler MP, Launspach JL, Karp PH, Kearney WR, Look DC, Smith JJ,
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Departments of Internal Medicine,
Pediatrics, and Physiology and Biophysics, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Facility, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.
The thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) contains antimicrobial
substances that kill the small numbers of bacteria that are constantly being
deposited in the lungs. An increase in ASL salt concentration inhibits the
activity of airway antimicrobial factors and may partially explain the
pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF). We tested the hypothesis that an
osmolyte with a low transepithelial permeability may lower the ASL salt
concentration, thereby enhancing innate immunity. We found that the
five-carbon sugar xylitol has a low transepithelial permeability, is poorly
metabolized by several bacteria, and can lower the ASL salt concentration in
both CF and non-CF airway epithelia in vitro. Furthermore, in a
double-blind, randomized, crossover study, xylitol sprayed for 4 days into
each nostril of normal volunteers significantly decreased the number of
nasal coagulase-negative Staphylococcus compared with saline control.
Xylitol may be of value in decreasing ASL salt concentration and enhancing
the innate antimicrobial defense at the airway surface.
The spray described in these pages
is not a drug. This means that the people manufacturing this spray
cannot advertise what the spray does to prevent disease and illness.
The spray only helps to clean your nose. The benefits come from
a clean nose. The only way people will learn about this practical
and sensible way to help the immune system wash pollutants from
the back of the nose is by interested people, like you, sharing
If you have family or friends with any of these problems, they
may benefit greatly from your sharing this information with them.
Links in the other sections, referring to a person or study, will
take you to a Medline summary, from the National Library of Medicine,
of the article in question.
This spray is protected by United States and international patents.
While careful reading of these pages will tell you how to mix this
spray yourself we request that you do not sell such spray on the
open market. Such sales would be prohibited by the above mentioned
Disclaimer: All material provided in this web site is provided
for educational purposes in the hope of improving our general health.
Access of this web site does not create a doctor-patient relationship
nor should the information contained on this web site be considered
specific medical advice with respect to a specific patient and/or
a specific condition. Copy sections of this page and discuss them
with your physician to see if they apply to your own symptoms or
Dr. Jones specifically disclaims any liability, loss or risk, personal
or otherwise, that is or may be incurred as a consequence, directly
or indirectly, of use or application of any of the information
provided on this web site.
A. H. 'Lon' Jones D.O.
812 West 8th St. Suite 2A
Plainview, Texas 79072
Phone (806) 291-0700
Fax (806) 293-8229